Franz Liszt "Hungarian Rhapsodies"
Hungary is a country with a bright cultural flavor. National music is filled with contrasts and is very different from European classics. In the Hungarian rhapsodies, Ferenc Liszt succeeded in embodying the entire beauty of the country's culture.
Learn interesting facts about the work of the composer in this genre, to get acquainted with the masterpieces of classical music, as well as listen to famous works on this page.
History of creation
It is believed that Liszt was the founder of the genre. Nevertheless, before him some of his own works were called by the famous Czech composer Tomashek. The creation of the genre is attributed to Liszt, because he managed to create not only a specific structure of the rhapsody, but also classified specific characteristics of the works, while Tomashek these were simple works that had no logical basis and no similarity between them.
It should be noted that Franz Liszt did not live in Hungary, his fate was firmly linked with other European countries. But throughout his life he retained a respect for the motherland. He constantly recalled his childhood, when he could listen to Roma folk songs for hours.
The creation of the rhapsodies of Liszt was prompted by a historical event connected with Hungary. In his native land for the composer there was a revolution against the feudal landlord system of the Austrian authorities. Unfortunately, the rebellion did not win, and was brutally suppressed. Hungary again became part of Austria.
The patriotic soul of the composer was deeply impressed by this fact. Then there were the first ideas about creating rhapsodies on the Hungarian folk melodies.
Total composer composed 19 works. The first rhapsody was written in 1851, the second opus was previously performed. Until 1853, another 13 essays were created. In 1882, 16 rhapsody was demonstrated, three years later, three more were written. In the future, the composer together with Doppler will create orchestral versions for some numbers.
Characteristics of the Rhapsody by Liszt
Rhapsody in the works of Franz Liszt is a piano work based on the national motifs and melodies of Hungary. Concert writing, which is determined by virtuosity.
- Melody homophonic-harmonic warehouse;
- The abundance of various melodies: lifting forshlag, trills and other musical decorations.
- Cadence "with spurs";
- Dotted accompaniment;
- Characteristic frets;
- The composition is free;
- General syncope;
- Tonic chanting;
- Tonal plan in the limit of related or engarmonically equal keys.
- The use of folk music modes, including the gypsy (Hungarian) scale, is a double harmonic mode.
- The structure of the musical form of rhapsodies - suite.
In the orchestral versions of the rhapsodies, Ferenc Liszt used musical instruments such as cymbals, guitars, string-bowed and stringed-plucked. It is this musical composition that allows you to express all the color and beauty of music.
It should be noted that the basis of each work in this genre is a verified arithmetic scheme. In principle, the number of parts, it must be even. The parts are contrasted with each other, usually slow and dancing.
Some musicologists call the Hungarian Rhapsodies piano symphonies.
- Rhapsody №2 was played in the famous computer game Adventures of the Monster Muppets, which appeared in 2000.
- Despite the fact that the composer is Hungarian by nationality, he did not know his native language and spoke only German.
- In the 15th rhapsody, the composer quoted the Hungarian revolutionary song "Rakoczy March". This essay is an example of a verbunkos style.
- In Budapest, the composer became the first president of the National Academy of Music.
- Especially loved Franz Liszt essays 12 and 14.
- The second rhapsody sounds in the famous animated film "Tom and Jerry".
- Together with Franz Doppler, the composer orchestrated six of his own rhapsodies. These include the second, fifth, sixth, ninth, twelfth and fourteenth.
- In addition to the Hungarian Rhapsodies, Ferenc composed another work on the Spanish national theme.
- The composer wrote a book about Hungarian Gypsies, about their national culture and music.
- It is noteworthy that the first rhapsody was started before everyone else, but finished after writing the second rhapsody. The composer spent a long time working the composition.
- Rhapsody refers to an epic genre in art.
- One of the best performers of rhapsody is the Hungarian pianist György Nigra.
- The culture of style is music similar to the music of care for the recruit. This explains the proud, heroic mood of the works.
- The name of the genre goes back to the speech of the rhapsodist. Rhapsody is a foreign analogue of the accordion, a storyteller about historical events.
The most famous rhapsody of Liszt
Each of the rhapsodies deserves attention, but still the examples of Ferenc Liszt’s works are rhapsodies numbered 2.6 and 12.
Second Hungarian Rhapsody
The most characteristic work in this genre is the most famous and performed.
The structure is two-part with the introduction, built on the suite principle.
Slow intro reproduces speech rhpsoda. Improvisation introduces the listener into the world of the national life of Hungary. Chord accompaniment is abundant with forshlagami and melism characteristic primarily of Hungarian music, it reproduces the performance on stringed folk instruments of this country.
The first movement is based on the slow lyric folk song Lashan. The part has a pronounced Hungarian flavor, thanks to the dotted endings. Further the theme will vary. The composer uses characteristic of his melodic development, namely the inclusion of a large number of passages.
The second theme is described in higher registers and has a dance character. Thanks to the introduction of material resembling the play of string-plucked instruments, an easy image is created. The topic is actively developing and leads to the return of the first two topics, namely the introduction and the main topic. We can say that the first part has a three-part form with a varied reprise.
Part II is a dance, the basis is the national dance frishka.
Phrishka is the second part of the famous Chardash dance. It was popular thanks to Verbunkosh. The main features of freebies are liveliness and swiftness. Dance allows you to display a picture of the national holiday fun. Gradually, the texture is complicated, and the topic accelerates to the limit. Wave-like dynamics approximates and distributes the listener from the epicenter of events.
It is noteworthy that the composer uses the most characteristic harmony, namely the alternation of tonic and dominant. Due to numerous variations on the theme of music does not become monotonous. After a grand climax, the movement begins to slow. A special theatricality adds a code structure. The writing conquers the listener with its own variety of musical themes.
Hungarian Rhapsody number 2 (listen)
Sixth Hungarian Rhapsody different unusual structure of the structure. The work consists of 4 contrasting parts:
- I part. Hungarian march.
- II part. Scherzo.
- III part. Legend of the Rhapsody.
- Part IV The embodiment of the picture of the national holiday.
The first part is a solemn procession in the rhythm of the march, which is sometimes called the traditional Hungarian dance "Pallatas". The main feature of the dance is dvuhdolnost. Ends part of an incredibly beautiful passage.
The second part is written in the rapid pace Presto. Syncopes revive the composition in every fourth measure, which manifest a cheerful disposition of the people.
The third part is the narration of the storyteller-rhapsodist. Improvisation is sustained in certain Gypsy-Hungarian ornaments. Narrative is emphasized by free rhythm. The presence of a fermat shows that time in history stops when the Hungarian folk instruments and the voice of the rhapsodist sound.
The joy and triumph of the people draws the final part. Virtuosity in the last section, namely the wide jumps, the use of octave movement fill the texture with colorful. Reproduced imitation of playing the folk instrument - dulcimer.
Hungarian Rhapsody №6 (listen)
Twelfth Hungarian Rhapsody
The piece was especially loved by Liszt for his poetry and lyrical images.
The writing is strictly divided into two sections:
- I part. National portraits.
- II part. Czardas.
The first part is written in three-part form with a varied reprise. It begins with the story, the story of the rhapsody about heroes and legends, but it is interrupted by the introduction of the song theme. The song is replete with extended seconds characteristic of the Hungarian fret. Intertwining between them complicates the music and makes it more saturated.
In the middle section male topics come in - this is the image of a hero fighting for justice and freedom. The themes of the narrator come back again. The story continues, which leads to victory and freedom.
The second part demonstrates the holiday of the victorious people. The composer takes the Chardash national dance as a basis.
The twelfth Rhapsody of Liszt is a striking example in the composer's work.
Hungarian Rhapsody number 12 (listen)
Rhapsody in Movies
Many directors turn to the works of Franz Liszt, his rhapsody can be heard in many modern films and TV shows:
|Hungarian Rhapsody №1||"Golden Earrings" (1947)|
|Hungarian Rhapsody №2||"National Justice" (2017)|
|"Florence Foster Jenkins" (2016)|
|"Birds of Neptune" (2015)|
|"White God" (2014)|
|"Stage Fear" (2014)|
|"Underground Empire" (2011)|
|"Who Framed Roger Rabbit" (1988)|
|The Outsider (1982)|
|Hungarian Rhapsody №5||"Robinson Crusoe: The Great Blitzkrieg" (2008)|
|Hungarian Rhapsody №6||"Pelican" (1992)|
|"Happy time" (1952)|
|"Wherever she goes" (1951)|
|Hungarian Rhapsody №12||"The Macabra Trail (1963)|
|Hungarian Rhapsody №14||"Good Heart" (2009)|
|Wacco's Desire (1999)|
Hungarian rhapsodies in Liszt’s work are not only an expression of deep respect for national traditions, but also a glorification of the Motherland. Each piece is filled with unusual color, which only Hungary can boast.